Top Ten Places of Interest in China (1) 中国十大名胜古迹(一)

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        China’s top ten scenic spots and historical sites refer to the Great Wall of China, Guilin Landscape, Beijing Forbidden City, Hangzhou West Lake, Suzhou Garden, which was initiated by China Travel News in 1985 and organized by the people of the country after more than half a year. Anhui Huangshan, Yangtze River Three Gorges, Taiwan Sun Moon Lake, Chengde Mountain Resort, Xi’an Qin Terracotta Warriors and Ten Scenic Spots. These ten scenic spots are distributed in various areas of the east, west, south and north of the motherland, including natural landscapes, historical buildings, cultural landscapes and cultural relics.
        中国十大名胜古迹是指1985年由《中国旅游报》发起并组织全国人民经过半年多的评比,于当年9月9日评选出的万里长城、桂林山水、北京故宫、杭州西湖、苏州园林、安徽黄山、长江三峡、台湾日月潭、承德避暑山庄、西安秦兵马俑十个风景名胜区。这十个景区分布于祖国的东西南北各个区域,包括自然景观,历史建筑,人文景观和文物古迹等。

万里长城Great Wall

古迹简介Brief introduction

The Great Wall is a collective term for the vast military engineering that ancient China built at different times to resist the invasion of the Saibei nomadic tribes.

万里长城是古代中国在不同时期为抵御塞北游牧部落联盟侵袭而修筑的规模浩大的军事工程的统称。

 
        The Great Wall stretches over thousands of miles, so it is also known as the Great Wall. The existing remains of the Great Wall are mainly built in the Ming Dynasty in the 14th century, from Jiayuguan in the west to Hushan in Liaodong in the east, with a total length of 8851.8 kilometers, with an average height of 6 to 7 meters and a width of 4 to 5 meters. The Great Wall is a great miracle created by the working people of ancient China and a testimony to China’s long history. Together with Tiananmen Square and Terracotta Warriors, it is regarded by the world as a symbol of China. At the same time, the Great Wall was listed as a World Cultural Heritage in December 1987.
        长城东西绵延上万华里,因此又称作万里长城。现存的长城遗迹主要为始建于14世纪的明长城,西起嘉峪关,东至辽东虎山,全长8851.8公里,平均高6至7米、宽4至5米。长城是我国古代劳动人民创造的伟大的奇迹,是中国悠久历史的见证。它与天安门,兵马俑一起被世人视为中国的象征。同时,长城于1987年12月被列为世界文化遗产。
        The Great Wall is a great military building in China. It is a large-scale miracle in the history of ancient human architecture. The Great Wall Belt, which consists of vast areas of north and south, which is dominated by the Great Wall of China in the north of China, runs through Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Jilin, Heilongjiang and Qinghai. A considerable part of the provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) of Xinjiang, including the historical period of the Republic of Mongolia and several areas of the Korean Peninsula. Its range is hundreds of kilometers wide to thousands of kilometers from north to south, and thousands of kilometers from east to west. The Great Wall has been inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. The development of various ethnic groups and their mutual relations is the key to observing and understanding all things in the Great Wall.
        万里长城,是中国伟大的军事建筑,它规模浩大,被誉为古代人类建筑史上的一大奇迹。以雄峙中国北方大地的万里长城为中介的南北广大地域所构成的长城带,横贯今辽宁、内蒙古、宁夏、甘肃、陕西、山西、河南、河北、北京、天津、山东和吉林、黑龙江、青海、新疆等省(市、自治区)的相当一部分地区,也包括历史时期处于今蒙古人民共和国和朝鲜半岛的若干地区。其范围南北宽约数百公里乃至上千公里,东西长约数千公里。长城带自远古至今居住着众多的民族,各民族及其相互关系的发展,是观察和理解长城带一切事物的关键所在。
        In the course of historical development, the ancient nationalities in the Great Wall have disappeared, and some new ethnic groups have been merged. They are closely related to more than 20 ethnic groups distributed in the Great Wall. All ethnic groups that have disappeared or continue to develop have made important contributions to the historical development of China.
        在历史发展过程中,长城带的古代民族,有些消失了,一些新的民族又融合生成,它们都与分布在长城带的20多个民族有着密切的渊源关系。无论已经消失的还是继续发展的各民族,都对中国的历史发展做出过重要的贡献。
        The Great Wall is the product of the development of ancient Chinese ethnic relations, but the research on the inner development law of the relationship between the South and the North of the Great Wall is still insufficient. Summarize the existing research results, broaden the research field, reveal the inner relationship between the Great Wall and the development of Chinese national relations, and develop the research on the disciplines of Great Wall Studies, ethnology and the history of Chinese ethnic relations, which has great practical significance for promoting national unity. Important theoretical research value.
        万里长城是中国古代民族关系发展的产物,但对于长城南北民族关系内在发展规律的研究尚不充分。总结已有的研究成果,拓宽研究领域,揭示长城与中国民族关系发展的内在联系,对于长城学、民族学及中国民族关系史等学科研究的发展,对于促进民族团结都有重大的现实意义和重要的理论研究价值。

主要景观Main landscape

The main landscapes of the Great Wall are: Badaling Great Wall, Mutianyu Great Wall, Simatai Great Wall, Shanhaiguan, Jiayuguan, Hushan Great Wall, and Jiumenkou Great Wall.
万里长城主要景观有:八达岭长城慕田峪长城司马台长城山海关嘉峪关虎山长城九门口长城等。

八达岭Badaling Great Wall

        The Badaling Great Wall in Yanqing County, Beijing is the best preserved and most representative section of the Ming Great Wall. Here is the outpost of the important gate of Juyongguan, with an altitude of 1015 meters. The terrain is dangerous and has always been a battleground for the military. The Great Wall, where you can climb, can take a commanding view of the mountains and mountains. So far, more than 300 famous people including Nixon and Margaret Thatcher have visited here.
        位于北京延庆县的八达岭长城是明长城中保存最完好,最具代表性的一段。这里是重要关口居庸关的前哨,海拔高度1015米,地势险要,历来是兵家必争之地。登上这里的长城,可以居高临下,尽览崇山峻岭的壮丽景色。迄今为止,已有包括尼克松、撒切尔夫人在内的三百多位知名人士到此游览。

慕田峪Mutianyu Great Wall

        Located in the Huairou District of Beijing, since the ancient times, the military has been fighting for a total of 22 enemy stations. The natural scenery here is beautiful, the trees are shaded and the scenery of the four seasons is pleasant.
        位于北京怀柔区内,自古以来兵家必争之地,总共有敌台22座。这里自然风景优美,绿树成荫,四季景色怡人。

司马台Simatai Great Wall

山海关–天下第一关  Shanhaiguan–the first level in the world
Located in Miyun County, Beijing, and built by Qi Jiguang, it is the only Great Wall in China that preserves the original appearance of the Ming Dynasty and was designated as the “Original Great Wall” by UNESCO. There are 20 enemy stations, which are well preserved so far. Shanhaiguan: Shanhaiguan in Qinhuangdao is the starting point of the eastern end of the Great Wall. It was built in 1381 (Ming Hongwu years) and has the reputation of “the first pass in the world”. The city is 14 meters high and 7 meters thick, and the defense system is quite complete. Ascend to the tower, you can see the vast sea of blue water and the vast wall of the city, the scenery is majestic.

位于北京密云县内,由戚继光督建,是我国唯一一处保留明代原貌的长城,被联合国教科文组织确定为“原始长城”。共有敌台20座,至今保存完好。山海关:位于秦皇岛的山海关是长城东端起点,建于公元1381年(明洪武年间),有“天下第一关”的美称。城高14米,厚7米,防御体系相当完整。登上城楼,可以看到碧波万顷的大海和蜿蜒的长城,景色雄伟。

嘉峪关Jiayuguan

        The westernmost starting point of the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty was built in 1372 AD (Ming Hongwu five years). It is the most complete preserved city gate, the first pass of Hexi, the world’s first Xiongguan, and an important stop on the Silk Road. . Chengguan is a complete military defense system consisting of inner city, outer city and city. The city gate is dominated by the inner city, which is made of loess, and the outer bread is made of city bricks, which is strong and majestic. The walls at both ends of the city gate cross the Gobi, where you can experience the desolateness of the desert city.
        明代长城最西端的起点,建于公元1372年(明洪武五年),是目前保存最完整的一座城关,河西第一隘口,有天下第一雄关的美名,也是丝绸之路上的重要一站。城关则是由内城、外城和城壕组成的完整军事防御体系。城关以内城为主,由黄土夯筑而成,外面包以城砖,坚固雄伟。城关两端的城墙横穿戈壁,在这里可以体会到大漠孤城的苍凉。

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